Nokia Corporation took its current form as Nokia Corporation in 1967, a corporation formed under the laws of the Republic of Finland. This was the result of the merger of three Finnish companies: Nokia AB, a wood-pulp mill founded in 1865, which took its name from the nearby Nokia River; Finnish Rubber Works Ltd, a manufacturer of rubber boots, tires and other rubber products founded in 1898; and Finnish Cable Works Ltd, a manufacturer of telephone and power cables founded in 1912. It is a manufacturer of mobile devices and deals in mobile network equipment, solutions and services. The Company also provides equipment, solutions and services for corporate customers. Today, Nokia has four business groups: Mobile Phones, Multimedia, Enterprise Solutions and Networks. Mobile Phones connect people by providing expanding mobile voice and data capabilities across a range of mobile devices. Mobile Phones currently offer mobile phones and devices based on the following global cellular technologies: GSM/EDGE, 3G/WCDMA and CDMA. Multimedia brings mobile multimedia experiences to consumers in the form of advanced mobile devices and applications with connectivity over GSM, 3G/WCDMA, WLAN, Bluetooth and other standards. Enterprise Solutions offers businesses and institutions a range of products and solutions, including enterprise-grade mobile devices, underlying security infrastructure, software and services. The Company also collaborates with a range of companies to provide fixed IP network security, mobilize corporate e-mail and extend corporate telephone systems to Nokia's mobile devices. Networks provide network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers. Networks focuses on the GSM family of radio technologies and aims at leadership in three areas: GSM, EDGE and 3G/WCDMA networks; core networks with increasing IP and multi-access capabilities; and services. Two horizontal groups, Customer and Market Operations and Technology Platforms, support and service its mobile device business groups, with the goal of increasing its operational efficiency and competitiveness by taking advantage of economies of scale. Technology Platforms also serves external customers. These two horizontal groups are not separate reporting entities and their costs are carried mainly by the three mobile device business groups, with the balance included in Common Group Expenses. The Customer and Market Operations group is responsible for the production of Nokia mobile devices, while the Networks group is responsible for the production of network infrastructure. Customer and Market Operations are responsible for marketing, sales, sourcing, manufacturing and logistics for mobile devices from Mobile Phones, Multimedia and Enterprise Solutions. The Networks business group has its own dedicated sales and marketing, logistics and sourcing functions, and Enterprise Solutions complements the Customer and Market Operations' focus on operators with its own sales and marketing organization focused on corporate customers. Technology Platforms is responsible for the competitiveness of Nokia's technology assets. It supports Nokia's overall technology management and development by delivering technologies and well-defined platforms to Nokia's business groups as well as to external customers. Mobile phone market participants compete mainly on the basis of the breadth and depth of their product portfolios, price, operational and manufacturing efficiency, technical performance, product features, quality, customer support, and brand recognition. At Nokia, research and development takes place within Technology Platforms, the four business groups and the Nokia Research Center. In the United States, Nokia's products are subject to government regulations that have a direct and great impact on its business. At December 31, 2005, Nokia employed 58,874 people.
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